Structures

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  • A Structure is a container, it can hold a bunch of variables.
    • These variables can be of any type.
  • It is a user defined data type used to group related data (i.e. variables)
  • Each variable in a structure can have similar or different data type than other variables of that structure.
  • Structures-Basic data types:
    • char, int ,float, long, double etc.
      • char is used to store a character in memory for later access.
      • int is used to store an integer in memory for later access.
      • Similarly other basic types are used to store their relevant data for later access.
    • User Defined Data Type:
      • We want to store the record of a student or of employees of an organization or community centres in a city
      • No basic data type provide us the facility to store these records because all these require a combination of more than one basic data types
      • g. Student will have name, class, reg. No. etc…
      • Example – Student Record;
      • Student Record:
        • Name a string
        • Roll No. an integer
        • Class             a string
        • CGPA             a float
      • Structure Members;
        • Each variable in a structure is called member.
        • Each member has a name, a type and a value.
        • Names follow the rules for variable names.
        • Types can be any basic data type.
      • Defining a Structure;
        • By defining a structure you create a new data type.
        • Once a struct is defined, you can create variables of the new type.
        • Just like you created the variables of basic data types

e.g. int x;

StudentRecord stu;

  • If a variable is declared, appropriate memory becomes reserved for that variable

e.g. declaring an integer reserves 4 bytes in memory

  • While declaring a variable (instance) of a structure reserves the sum of memory requirements of all of its members.
  • i.e Variable of StudentRecord structure will reserve 38 bytes in memory

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